Past Tutorials

Tutorial Pre v1.1

HLA Typing

General Instructions

Using the human reference genome, referred to as the linear reference (e.g. GRCh38 and hg38), for genomic analysis would be rather straightforward if our variants were uniformly distributed with only one nucleotide difference every 1,000 nucleotides, which most of the currently used alignment programs could handle with great accuracy. However, the distribution of variants is not uniform. Some genomic regions such as HLA genes and DNA fingerprinting loci are highly polymorphic. So using the reference genome for analyzing such highly polymorphic regions may not be the most effective approach, and this is where our graph reference comes into play. Here we describe one case, HLA-typing, where our graph reference/alignment method outperforms currently used approaches.

The tutorial requires a 64-bit computer running either Linux or Mac OS X and 8 GB of RAM. All the commands used should be run from the Unix shell prompt within a terminal window and are prefixed with a ‘$’ character.

This tutorial is under active development and subject to change at any time.

Initial Setup

We use HISAT2 for graph representation and alignment, which is currently the most practical and quickest program available. We refer to hisat-genotype-top as our top directory where all of our programs are located. hisat-genotype-top is a place holder that you can change to whatever name you’d like to use.

In order to install HISAT2, please run the following commands.

 $ git clone hisat-genotype
 $ cd hisat-genotype
 hisat-genotype-top$ git checkout hisatgenotype_v1.1.3
 $ make hisat2-align-s hisat2-build-s hisat2-inspect-s

Add the above directory (hisat-genotype) to your PATH environment variable (e.g. ~/.bashrc) to make the binaries we just built above and other python scripts available everywhere:

 export PATH=hisat-genotype:hisat-genotype/hisatgenotype_scripts:$PATH
 export PYTHONPATH=hisat-genotype/hisatgenotype_modules:$PYTHONPATH

After that, you may have to run the following command to reflect the change,

 $ source ~/.bashrc

Create a directory where we perform our analysis for HLA typing and assembly, which we will refer to as hla-analysis. hla-analysis is a place holder that you can change to whatever name you’d like to use.

 $ mkdir hla-analysis

Change the current directory to hla-analysis.

 $ cd hla-analysis

Additional program requirements:

 SAMtools (version 1.3 or later)

Downloading or Building a Graph Reference and Index

The graph reference we are going to build incorporates variants of numerous HLA alleles into the linear reference using a graph. The graph reference also includes some known variants of other regions of the genome (e.g. common small variants).

We provide a pre-built graph reference and index here, which you can download as follows.

 hla-analysis$ wget
 hla-analysis$ tar xvzf genotype_genome_20180128.tar.gz

Or alternatively, if you want to build a graph reference, please refer to the Building a graph reference.

Typing and Assembly

HISAT-genotype performs both HLA typing and assembly and now had read extraction and database management built in. The following steps are a simple methodology for typing HLA gene using a test set of reads we provide. The reads are from Illumina Platinum Genomes, which include 17 individuals with the CEPH pedigree 1463.

The following scrip downloads the test dataset. Alternatively, you can use your own data in place of the ILMN files.

 hla-analysis$ wget
 hla-analysis$ tar xvzf ILMN.tar.gz

You can perform HLA typing and assembly for HLA-A gene on sequencing reads from a genome, NA12892 (Illumina’s HiSeq 2000 platform).

 hla-analysis$ hisatgenotype --base hla --locus-list A -1 ILMN/NA12892.extracted.1.fq.gz -2 ILMN/NA12892.extracted.2.fq.gz

Even though the ILMN data is already preextracted for HLA, HISAT-genotype will attempt to extract the reads and place them in a new folder. Note that you can add more loci to the --locus-list option above. EX --locus-list A,B,C,DRB1,DQA1

You can add the --assembly option to get HISAT-genotype to assemble the reads into alleles.

Interpreting Output

Typing Output

Number of reads aligned: 1507
  1 A*02:01:01:02L (count: 571)
  2 A*02:01:31 (count: 557)
  3 A*02:20:02 (count: 557)
  4 A*02:29 (count: 557)
  5 A*02:321N (count: 556)
  6 A*02:372 (count: 556)
  7 A*02:610:02 (count: 556)
  8 A*02:249 (count: 555)
  9 A*02:479 (count: 555)
 10 A*02:11:01 (count: 554)

The above lines show the top ten alleles that the most number of reads are mapped to or compatible with. For example, the allele first ranked, A*02:01:01:02L, is compatible with 571 reads. This raw estimate based on the number of reads should not be used to determine the two true alleles because the alleles that resemble both but are not true alleles often tend to be compatible with more reads than either of the true alleles. Thus, we apply a statistical model to identify the two true alleles as described here.

Abundance of alleles
  1 ranked A*02:01:01:01 (abundance: 54.32%)
  2 ranked A*11:01:01:01 (abundance: 45.20%)
  3 ranked A*24:33 (abundance: 0.48%)

The above rankings show the top three alleles that are most abundant in the sample. Normally, the top two alleles in this estimate (e.g. A02:01:01:01 and A11:01:01:01) are considered as the two alleles that best match a given sequencing data.

Assembly Output

These are screenshots of the assembly output as a result of the command line from Typing and Assembly. The actual output is available here in HTML format. Please note that currently only Google Chrome browser supports the HTML file.

HLA Assembly NA12892 1.png

The first two bands are two alleles predicted by HISAT-genotype, in this case A02:01:01:01 in green and A11:01:01:01 in yellow. Below are shorter bands indicating read alignments whose color is determined according to their compatibility with either allele. If reads are compatible with both alleles, they are shown in white.

HLA Assembly NA12892 2.png

As above, the first two bands are two alleles predicted by HISAT-genotype, and the next two bands are two alleles assembled by HISAT-genotype. In most of the cases, the predicted alleles are the same as the assembled alleles.